Further reading

Computer fraud is any dishonest misrepresentation of fact intended to let another to do or refrain from doing something which causes loss.

Balkin, J., Grimmelmann, J., Katz, E., Kozlovski, N., Wagman, S. & Zarsky, T. (2006) (eds) Cybercrime: Digital Cops in a Networked Environment, New York University Press, New York.
Bowker, Art (2012) « The Cybercrime Handbook for Community Corrections: Managing Risk in the 21st Century » Charles C. Thomas Publishers, Ltd. Springfield.
Brenner, S. (2007) Law in an Era of Smart Technology, Oxford: Oxford University Press
Broadhurst, R., and Chang, Lennon Y.C. (2013) « Cybercrime in Asia: trends and challenges », in B. Hebenton, SY Shou, & J. Liu (eds), Asian Handbook of Criminology (pp. 49–64). New York: Springer (ISBN 978-1-4614-5217-1)
Chang, L.Y. C. (2012) Cybercrime in the Greater China Region: Regulatory Responses and Crime Prevention across the Taiwan Strait. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. (ISBN 978-0-85793-667-7)
Chang, Lennon Y.C., & Grabosky, P. (2014) « Cybercrime and establishing a secure cyber world », in M. Gill (ed) Handbook of Security (pp. 321–339). NY: Palgrave.
Csonka P. (2000) Internet Crime; the Draft council of Europe convention on cyber-crime: A response to the challenge of crime in the age of the internet? Computer Law & Security Report Vol.16 no.5.
Easttom, Chuck (2010) Computer Crime Investigation and the Law
Fafinski, S. (2009) Computer Misuse: Response, regulation and the law Cullompton: Willan
Glenny, Misha, DarkMarket : cyberthieves, cybercops, and you, New York, NY : Alfred A. Knopf, 2011. ISBN 978-0-307-59293-4
Grabosky, P. (2006) Electronic Crime, New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Halder, D., & Jaishankar, K. (2016). Cyber Crimes against Women in India. New Delhi: SAGE Publishing. ISBN 978-9385985775.
Halder, D., & Jaishankar, K. (2011) Cybercrime and the Victimization of Women: Laws, Rights, and Regulations. Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global. ISBN 978-1-60960-830-9
Jaishankar, K. (Ed.) (2011). Cyber Criminology: Exploring Internet Crimes and Criminal behavior. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, Taylor, and Francis Group.
McQuade, S. (2006) Understanding and Managing Cybercrime, Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
McQuade, S. (ed) (2009) The Encyclopedia of Cybercrime, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Parker D (1983) Fighting Computer Crime, U.S.: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Pattavina, A. (ed) Information Technology and the Criminal Justice System, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Paul Taylor (1999). Hackers: Crime in the Digital Sublime (3 November 1999 ed.). Routledge; 1 edition. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-415-18072-6.
Robertson, J. (2 March 2010). Authorities bust 3 in infection of 13m computers. Retrieved 26 March 2010, from Boston News: Boston.com
Walden, I. (2007) Computer Crimes and Digital Investigations, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rolón, Darío N. Control, vigilancia y respuesta penal en el ciberespacio, Latin American’s New Security Thinking, Clacso, 2014, pp. 167/182
Richet, J.L. (2013) From Young Hackers to Crackers, International Journal of Technology and Human Interaction (IJTHI), 9(3), 53–62.
Wall, D.S. (2007) Cybercrimes: The transformation of crime in the information age, Cambridge: Polity.
Williams, M. (2006) Virtually Criminal: Crime, Deviance and Regulation Online, Routledge, London.
Yar, M. (2006) Cybercrime and Society, London: Sage.

 

Source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybercrime

References

Due to easily exploitable laws, cybercriminals use developing countries in order to evade detection and prosecution from law enforcement.

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Bossler, Adam M.; Berenblum, Tamar (20 October 2019). « Introduction: new directions in cybercrime research ». Journal of Crime and Justice. 42 (5): 495–499. doi:10.1080/0735648X.2019.1692426. ISSN 0735-648X.
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Lewis, James (February 2018). « Economic Impact of Cybercrime – No Slowing Down » (PDF).
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« Kaspersky Security Bulletin 2016. The ransomware revolution ». securelist.com. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
« Global Ransomware Damage Costs Predicted To Reach $20 Billion (USD) By 2021 ». Cybercrime Magazine. 19 October 2018. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
Carback, Joshua T. (2018). « Cybersex Trafficking: Toward a More Effective Prosecutorial Response ». Criminal Law Bulletin. 54 (1): 64–183. p. 64.
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« Senate to probe rise in child cybersex trafficking ». The Philippine Star. 11 November 2019.
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« Webcam slavery: tech turns Filipino families into cybersex child traffickers ». Reuters. 17 June 2018.
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« Cybersex trafficking spreads across Southeast Asia, fuelled by internet boom. And the law lags behind ». South China Morning Post. 11 September 2019.
« What is ‘Nth Room’ case and why it matters ». Korea Herald. 24 April 2020.
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* Halder, D., & Jaishankar, K. (2011) Cyber crime and the Victimization of Women: Laws, Rights, and Regulations. Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global. ISBN 978-1-60960-830-9
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Source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybercrime

Awareness and Intelligence

Awareness

As technology advances and more people rely on the internet to store sensitive information such as banking or credit card information, criminals increasingly attempt to steal that information. Cybercrime is becoming more of a threat to people across the world. Raising awareness about how information is being protected and the tactics criminals use to steal that information continues to grow in importance. According to the FBI’s Internet Crime Complaint Center in 2014, th ere were 269,422 complaints filed. With all the claims combined there was a reported total loss of $800,492,073. But cybercrime does yet seem to be on the average person’s radar. There are 1.5 million cyber-attacks annually, that means that there are over 4,000 attacks a day, 170 attacks every hour, or nearly three attacks every minute, with studies showing us that only 16% of victims had asked the people who were carrying out the attacks to stop. Anybody who uses the internet for any reason can be a victim, which is why it is important to be aware of how one is being protected while online.

The broad diffusion of cybercriminal activities is an issue in computer crimes detection and prosecution.

Intelligence

As cybercrime has proliferated, a professional ecosystem has evolved to support individuals and groups seeking to profit from cybercriminal activities. The ecosystem has become quite specialized, including malware developers, botnet operators, professional cybercrime groups, groups specializing in the sale of stolen content, and so forth. A few of the leading cybersecurity companies have the skills, resources and visibility to follow the activities of these individuals and group. A wide variety of information is available from these sources which can be used for defensive purposes, including technical indicators such as hashes of infected files or malicious IPs/URLs, as well as strategic information profiling the goals, techniques and campaigns of the profiled groups. Some of it is freely published, but consistent, on-going access typically requires subscribing to an adversary intelligence subscription service. At the level of an individual threat actor, threat intelligence is often referred to that actor’s « TTP », or « tactics, techniques, and procedures, » as the infrastructure, tools, and other technical indicators are often trivial for attackers to change. Corporate sectors are considering crucial role of artificial intelligence cybersecurity.

INTERPOL Cyber Fusion Center have begun a collaboration with cybersecurity key players to distribute information on latest online scams, cyber threats and risks to internet users. Reports cutting across social engineered frauds, ransomware, phishing, and other has since 2017 been distributed to security agencies in over 150 countries.

Source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybercrime.

Combating computer crime : Investigation

It is difficult to find and combat cyber crime’s perpetrators due to their use of the internet in support of cross-border attacks. Not only does the internet allow people to be targeted from various locations, but the scale of the harm done can be magnified. Cyber criminals can target more than one person at a time. The availability of virtual spaces to public and private sectors has allowed cybercrime to become an everyday occurrence. In 2018, The Internet Crime Complaint Center received 351,937 complaints of cybercrime, which lead to $2.7 billion lost.

They use their intelligence to protect against international cybercrime.

A computer can be a source of evidence (see digital forensics). Even where a computer is not directly used for criminal purposes, it may contain records of value to criminal investigators in the form of a logfile. In most countries Internet Service Providers are required, by law, to keep their logfiles for a predetermined amount of time. For example; a European wide Data Retention Directive (applicable to all EU member states) states that all e-mail traffic should be retained for a minimum of 12 months.

There are many ways for cybercrime to take place, and investigations tend to start with an IP Address trace, however, that is not necessarily a factual basis upon which detectives can solve a case. Different types of high-tech crime may also include elements of low-tech crime, and vice versa, making cybercrime investigators an indispensable part of modern law enforcement. Methods of cybercrime detective work are dynamic and constantly improving, whether in closed police units or in international cooperation framework.

Senator Tommy Tuberville touring the National Computer Forensic Institute in Hoover, Alabama in 2021.
In the United States, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) are government agencies that combat cybercrime. The FBI has trained agents and analysts in cybercrime placed in their field offices and headquarters. Under the DHS, the Secret Service has a Cyber Intelligence Section that works to target financial cyber crimes. They use their intelligence to protect against international cybercrime. Their efforts work to protect institutions, such as banks, from intrusions and information breaches. Based in Alabama, the Secret Service and the Alabama Office of Prosecution Services work together to train professionals in law enforcement through the creation of The National Computer Forensic Institute. This institute works to provide « state and local members of the law enforcement community with training in cyber incident response, investigation, and forensic examination in cyber incident response, investigation, and forensic examination. »

Due to the common use of encryption and other techniques to hide their identity and location by cybercriminals, it can be difficult to trace a perpetrator after the crime is committed, so prevention measures are crucial.

Source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybercrime.

Online harassment

Whereas content may be offensive in a non-specific way, harassment directs obscenities and derogatory comments at specific individuals focusing for example on gender, race, religion, nationality, sexual orientation.

Several countries outside of the United States have also created laws to combat online harassment.

There are instances where committing a crime using a computer can lead to an enhanced sentence. For example, in the case of United States v. Neil Scott Kramer, the defendant was given an enhanced sentence according to the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines Manual §2G1.3(b)(3) for his use of a cell phone to « persuade, induce, entice, coerce, or facilitate the travel of, the minor to engage in prohibited sexual conduct. » Kramer appealed the sentence on the grounds that there was insufficient evidence to convict him under this statute because his charge included persuading through a computer device and his cellular phone technically is not a computer. Although Kramer tried to argue this point, the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines Manual states that the term ‘computer’ « means an electronic, magnetic, optical, electrochemical, or other high-speed data processing device performing logical, arithmetic, or storage functions, and includes any data storage facility or communications facility directly related to or operating in conjunction with such device. »

In the United States alone, Missouri and over 40 other states have passed laws and regulations that regard extreme online harassment as a criminal act. These acts can be punished on a federal scale, such as US Code 18 Section 2261A, which states that using computers to threaten or harass can lead to a sentence of up to 20 years, depending on the action taken.

Several countries outside of the United States have also created laws to combat online harassment. In China, a country that supports over 20 percent of the world’s internet users, the Legislative Affairs Office of the State Council passed a strict law against the bullying of young people through a bill in response to the Human Flesh Search Engine. The United Kingdom passed the Malicious Communications Act, among other acts from 1997 to 2013, which stated that sending messages or letters electronically that the government deemed « indecent or grossly offensive » and/or language intended to cause « distress and anxiety » can lead to a prison sentence of six months and a potentially large fine. Australia, while not directly addressing the issue of harassment, has grouped the majority of online harassment under the Criminal Code Act of 1995. Using telecommunication to send threats or harass and cause offense was a direct violation of this act.

Although freedom of speech is protected by law in most democratic societies (in the US this is done by the First Amendment), it does not include all types of speech. In fact, spoken or written « true threat » speech/text is criminalized because of « intent to harm or intimidate. » That also applies for online or any type of network-related threats in written text or speech.

Cyberbullying has increased drastically with the growing popularity of online social networking. As of January 2020, 44% of adult internet users in the United States have « personally experienced online harassment. » Children who experience online harassment deal with negative and sometimes life threatening side effects. In 2021, reports displayed 41% of children developing social anxiety, 37% of children developing depression, and 26% of children having suicidal thoughts.

Source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybercrime

Computer as a target, Crimes that use computer networks or devices

Computer as a target

These crimes are committed by a selected group of criminals.

These crimes are committed by a selected group of criminals. Unlike crimes using the computer as a tool, these crimes require the technical knowledge of the perpetrators. As such, as technology evolves, so too does the nature of the crime. These crimes are relatively new, having been in existence for only as long as computers have—which explains how unprepared society and the world, in general, is towards combating these crimes. There are numerous crimes of this nature committed daily on the internet. It is seldom committed by loners, instead it involves large syndicate groups.

Crimes that primarily target computer networks include:

  • Computer viruses
  • Denial-of-service attacks
  • Malware (malicious code)
  • Computer as a tool

When the individual is the main target of cybercrime, the computer can be considered as the tool rather than the target. These crimes generally involve less technical expertise. Human weaknesses are generally exploited. The damage dealt is largely psychological and intangible, making legal action against the variants more difficult. These are the crimes which have existed for centuries in the offline world. Scams, theft, and the likes have existed even before the development in high-tech equipment. The same criminal has simply been given a tool which increases their potential pool of victims and makes them all the harder to trace and apprehend.

Crimes that use computer networks or devices to advance other ends include:

  • Fraud and identity theft (although this increasingly uses malware, hacking or phishing, making it an example of both « computer as target » and « computer as tool » crime)
  • Information warfare
  • Phishing scams
  • Spam
  • Propagation of illegal obscene or offensive content, including harassment and threats

The unsolicited sending of bulk email for commercial purposes (spam) is unlawful in some jurisdictions.

Phishing is mostly propagated via email. Phishing emails may contain links to other websites that are affected by malware.[38] Or, they may contain links to fake online banking or other websites used to steal private account information.

Obscene or offensive content

The content of websites and other electronic communications may be distasteful, obscene or offensive for a variety of reasons. In some instances, these communications may be illegal.

The extent to which these communications are unlawful varies greatly between countries, and even within nations. It is a sensitive area in which the courts can become involved in arbitrating between groups with strong beliefs.

One area of Internet pornography that has been the target of the strongest efforts at curtailment is child pornography, which is illegal in most jurisdictions in the world. Debarati Halder and K. Jaishankar further define cybercrime from the perspective of gender and defined ‘cybercrime against women’ as « Crimes targeted against women with a motive to intentionally harm the victim psychologically and physically, using modern telecommunication networks such as internet and mobile phones ».

Source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybercrime.

Classifications : Financial fraud crimes, Cyberterrorism, Cyberextortion

With traditional crime reducing, global communities continue to witness a sporadic growth in cybercrime. Computer crime encompasses a broad range of activities.

Cyberextortion occurs when a website, e-mail server, or computer system is subjected to or threatened with repeated denial of service or other attacks by malicious hackers.

 

Financial fraud crimes

Computer fraud is any dishonest misrepresentation of fact intended to let another to do or refrain from doing something which causes loss. In this context, the fraud will result in obtaining a benefit by:

  • Altering in an unauthorized way. This requires little technical expertise and is a common form of theft by employees altering the data before entry or entering false data, or by entering unauthorized instructions or using unauthorized processes;
  • Altering, destroying, suppressing, or stealing output, usually to conceal unauthorized transactions. This is difficult to detect;
  • Altering or deleting stored data;

Other forms of fraud may be facilitated using computer systems, including bank fraud, carding, identity theft, extortion, and theft of classified information. These types of crime often result in the loss of private information or monetary information.

Cyberterrorism

Government officials and information technology security specialists have documented a significant increase in Internet problems and server scans since early 2001. There is a growing concern among government agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) that such intrusions are part of an organized effort by cyberterrorist foreign intelligence services, or other groups to map potential security holes in critical systems. A cyberterrorist is someone who intimidates or coerces a government or an organization to advance his or her political or social objectives by launching a computer-based attack against computers, networks, or the information stored on them.

Cyberterrorism, in general, can be defined as an act of terrorism committed through the use of cyberspace or computer resources (Parker 1983). As such, a simple propaganda piece on the Internet that there will be bomb attacks during the holidays can be considered cyberterrorism. There are also hacking activities directed towards individuals, families, organized by groups within networks, tending to cause fear among people, demonstrate power, collecting information relevant for ruining peoples’ lives, robberies, blackmailing, etc.

Cyberextortion

Cyberextortion occurs when a website, e-mail server, or computer system is subjected to or threatened with repeated denial of service or other attacks by malicious hackers. These hackers demand money in return for promising to stop the attacks and to offer « protection ». According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, cybercrime extortionists are increasingly attacking corporate websites and networks, crippling their ability to operate and demanding payments to restore their service. More than 20 cases are reported each month to the FBI and many go unreported in order to keep the victim’s name out of the public domain. Perpetrators typically use a distributed denial-of-service attack. However, other cyberextortion techniques exist such as doxing extortion and bug poaching.

An example of cyberextortion was the attack on Sony Pictures of 2014.

Ransomware is a kind of cyberextortion in which a malware is used to restrict access to files, sometimes threatening permanent data erasure unless a ransom is paid. Kapersky Lab 2016 Security Bulletin report estimates that a business falls victim of Ransomware every 40 minutes. and predicted to attack a business every 11 minutes in 2021. With Ransomware remaining one of the fastest growing cybercrimes in the world, global Ransomware damage is predicted to cost up to $20 billion in 2021.

Cybersex trafficking

Cybersex trafficking is the transportation of victims and then the live streaming of coerced sexual acts and or rape on webcam. Victims are abducted, threatened, or deceived and transferred to ‘cybersex dens.’ The dens can be in any location where the cybersex traffickers have a computer, tablet, or phone with internet connection. Perpetrators use social media networks, videoconferences, dating pages, online chat rooms, apps, dark web sites, and other platforms. They use online payment systems and cryptocurrencies to hide their identities. Millions of reports of its occurrence are sent to authorities annually. New legislation and police procedures are needed to combat this type of cybercrime.

An example of cybersex trafficking is the 2018–2020 Nth room case in South Korea.

Cyberwarfare

Sailors analyze, detect and defensively respond to unauthorized activity within U.S. Navy information systems and computer networks
The U.S. Department of Defense notes that the cyberspace has emerged as a national-level concern through several recent events of geostrategic significance. Among those are included, the attack on Estonia’s infrastructure in 2007, allegedly by Russian hackers. In August 2008, Russia again allegedly conducted cyber attacks, this time in a coordinated and synchronized kinetic and non-kinetic campaign against the country of Georgia. Fearing that such attacks may become the norm in future warfare among nation-states, the concept of cyberspace operations impacts and will be adapted by warfighting military commanders in the future.

Source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybercrime

What is Cybercrime ?

Cybercrime, or computer crime, is a crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target. Cybercrime may harm someone’s security and financial health.

There are many privacy concerns surrounding Cybercrime when confidential information is intercepted or disclosed, lawfully or otherwise

There are many privacy concerns surrounding Cybercrime when confidential information is intercepted or disclosed, lawfully or otherwise. Internationally, both governmental and non-state actors engage in cybercrimes, including espionage, financial theft, and other cross-border crimes. Cybercrimes crossing international borders and involving the actions of at least one nation-state are sometimes referred to as cyberwarfare. Warren Buffet describes Cybercrime as the « number one problem with mankind » and « poses real risks to humanity. »

A report (sponsored by McAfee) published in 2014 estimated that the annual damage to the global economy was $445 billion. A 2016 report by Cybersecurity ventures predicted that global damages incurred as a result of cybercrime would cost up to $6 trillion annually by 2021 and $10.5 trillion annually by 2025.

Approximately $1.5 billion was lost in 2012 to online credit and debit card fraud in the US. In 2018, a study by the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), in partnership with McAfee, concludes that nearly one percent of global GDP, close to $600 billion, is lost to cybercrime each year. The World Economic Forum 2020 Global Risk report confirmed that organized Cybercrimes bodies are joining forces to perpetrate criminal activities online while estimating the likelihood of their detection and prosecution to be less than 1 percent in the US.

Source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybercrime.